Measuring and minimising positional and title confusion biases in print audience estimates

In measuring print media audience sizes using self-administered paper questionnaires two types of biases have been documented or suggested in the literature: positional biases and title confusion bias. This paper contributes to the literature by simultaneously addressing two types of positional biases and title confusion bias and assessing their impact upon screen-in rates and weighted reading frequencies. We also show how these biases can be minimized through the use of a web-based questionnaire design.

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